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Selected PSP Research Papers
Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) is an active ingredient extracted from a medicinal mushroom called Coriolus versicolor. It can play an important role in supporting the immine system. Over the past 20 years, extensive research studies including clinical trials have been conducted in order to elucidate its immune health benefits in the body.

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Mycelia of Coriolus versicolor

2014

Clinical (Human)
Pallav K, et al. Effects of polysaccharopeptide from Trametes Versicolor and amoxicillin on the gut microbiome of healthy volunteers: A randomized clinical trial. Gut Microbes, 5(4), pp. 458-467(2014). Full Article

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2013

In vitro
Yu, ZT et al. Trametes versicolor extract modifies human fecal microbiota composition in vitro, Plant Foods of Human Nutrition, 68(2), pp. 107-112(2013). Abstract

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2012

Clinical (Dogs)
Brown Dorothy Cimino, Reetz Jennifer. Single agent polysaccharopeptide delays metastases and improves survival in naturally occurring hemangiosarcoma. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine.eCAM 2012: 384301, (2012). Full PDF Article

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2008

In vitro
Wan JM, Sit WH, Louie JC. Polysaccharopeptide enhances the anticancer activity of doxorubicin and etoposide on human breast cancer cells ZR-75-30. Int J Oncol.32(3):689V699 (2008). Abstract
Lee CL, Sit WH, Jiang PP, So IW, Wan JM. Polysaccharopeptide mimics ciclosporin-mediated Th1/Th2 cytokine balance for suppression of activated human T cell proliferation by MAPKp38 and STAT5 pathways. J Pharm Pharmacol. 60(11): 1491-9 (2008). Abstract

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2007

Clinical (Human)
Guglielmo, B.J. et al. In vivo effect of I'm-Yunity® on Hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4. J. Herb. Pharmacother.7(1), 39-56 (2007). Abstract

In vitro
Lee CL, Jiang PP, Sit WH, Wan JM. Proteome of human T lymphocytes with treatment of cyclosporine and polysaccharopeptide: analysis of significant proteins that manipulate T cells proliferation and immunosuppression. Int Immunopharmacol. 7(10): 1311-24 (2007). Abstract

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2006

In vitro & animal
Chan, S.L. et al. Effects of polysaccharide peptide (PSP) from Coriolus versicolor on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in the rat and cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Food Chem. Toxicol.44, 689-694 (2006). *** Abstract

In vitro
Wu, J.M. et al. Induction of cell cycle changes and modulation of apoptogenic/anti-apoptotic and extracellular signaling regulatory protein expression by water extracts of I'm-Yunity (PSP). BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 6, 30 (2006). *** Full PDF Article
Hsieh TC and Wu JM. Differential control of growth, cell cycle progression, and gene expression in human estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells by extracts derived from polysaccharopeptide I'm-Yunity and Danshen and their combination. Intern J Oncol.29, 1215-1222 (2006). Abstract

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2005

Clinical (Human)
Wong, C.K., et al. Immunomodulatory activities of Yunzhi and Danshen in post-treatment breast cancer patients. Am. J. Chin. Med.33, 381-395 (2005). *** Abstract

In vitro
Zeng, F. et al. Molecular characterization of Coriolus versicolor PSP-induced apoptosis in human promyelotic leukemic HL-60 using cDNA microarray. Int. J. Oncol.27, 513-523 (2005). *** Abstract
Hui, K.P. et al. Induction of S phase cell arrest and caspase activation by polysaccharide peptide isolated from Coriolus versicolor enhanced the cell cycle dependent activity and apoptotic cell death of doxorubicin and etoposide, but not cytarabine in HL-60 cells. Oncol. Rep.14, 145-155 (2005). *** Abstract
Yang X. et al. The cell death process of the anticancer agent polysaccharide-peptide (PSP) in human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. Oncol. Rep.13, 1201-1210 (2005).*** Abstract
Ho, C.Y. et al. Differential anti-tumor activity of coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract through p53- and/or Bcl-2-dependent apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Biol. Ther.4, 638-644 (2005). Abstract
Coles, M. et al. Lack of prevention of large intestinal cancer by VPS, an extract of Coriolus versicolor mushroom. In vivo.19, 867-871 (2005). Abstract

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2004

Clinical (Human)
Wong, C.K. et al. Immunomodulatory effects of yun zhi and danshen capsules in health subjects - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Int. Immunopharmacol.4, 201-211 (2004). *** Abstract

In vitro
Ho, C.Y. et al. Differential effect of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extracts on cytokines production by murine lymphocytes in vitro. Int. Immunopharmacol.4, 1549-1557 (2004). Abstract
Ho, J.C. et al. Fungal polysaccharopeptide inhibits tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in mice. Life Sci.75, 1343-1356 (2004). Abstract
Lau, C.B. et al. Cytotoxic activities of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extracts on human leukemia and lymphoma cells by induction of apoptosis. Life Sci.75, 797-808 (2004). Abstract

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2003

Clinical (Human)
Tsang, K.W. et al. Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide peptide slows progression of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Resp. Med.97, 618-624 (2003). Reprint is available upon request by email. *** Abstract

Review
Monro, J.A. Treatment of cancer with mushroom products. Arch. Environ. Health58, 533-537 (2003). Abstract
Cui, J. et al. Polysaccharopeptide of coriolus versicolor: physiological activity, uses, and production. Biotechnol. Adv.21, 109-122 (2003). Abstract

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2002

Animal
Song, L.C. et al. Effects of coriolus versicolor polysaccharide B on monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 gene expression in rat. Acta Pharmacol. Sin.23, 539-543 (2002). Abstract

In vitro
Hsieh, T.C. et al. Effects of extracts of Coriolus versicolor (Im Yunity) on cell-cycle progression and expression of Interleukins-1], -6, and -8 in promyelocytic HL-60 leukemic cells and mitogenically stimulated and nonstimulated human lymphocytes. J. Altern. Complem. Med.8, 591-602 (2002). Reprint is available upon request by email. *** Abstract
Mau, J.L. et al. Antioxidant properties of several medicinal mushrooms. J. Agric. Food Chem.50, 6072-6077 (2002). Abstract

Review
Chu , K.K. et al. Coriolus versicolor: a medicinal mushroom with promising immunotherapeutic values. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 42, 976-984 (2002). Abstract

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2001

In vitro
Hsieh, T.C. et al. Cell growth and gene modulatory activities of Yunzhi (Winsor Wunxi) from mushroom Trametes versicolor in androgen-dependent and androgen-insensitive human prostate cancer cells. Int. J. Oncol.18, 81-88 (2001). *** Abstract
Mao, X.W. et al. Evaluation of polysaccharopeptide effects against C6 glioma in combination with radiation. Oncology61, 243-246 (2001). *** Abstract

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2000

Review
Kidd, P.M. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment. Altern. Med. Rev.5, 4-27 (2000). *** Full PDF Article
Ooi, V.E. et al. Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes. Curr. Med. Chem.7, 715-729 (2000). Abstract

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1999

In vitro
Kim, H.S. et al. In vitro chemopreventative effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor). Carcinogenesis20, 1637-1640 (1999). Abstract

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1998

Animal
Wu, D. et al. Dietary supplementation with mushroom-derived protein-bound glucan does not enhance immune function in young and old mice. J. Nutr.128, 193-197 (1998). Abstract

Review
Ng, T.B. A review of research on the protein-bound polysaccharide (polysaccharopeptide, PSP) from the mushroom Coriolus veriscolor (Basidiomycetes: polyporaceae). Gen. Pharmac.30, 1-4 (1998). *** Abstract
Gong, S. et al. Involvement of interleukin-2 in analgesia produced by Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide peptides. Acta Pharmacol. Sin.19, 67-70 (1998). *** Abstract

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1997

Animal
Ng, T.B. et al. Polysaccharopeptide from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor possesses analgesic activity but does not produce adverse effects on female reproductive or embryonic development in mice. Gen. Pharmacol.29, 269-273 (1997). *** Abstract
Qian, Z.M. et al. Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) restores immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide in rats. Am. J. Chin. Med.25, 27-35 (1997). *** Abstract

In vitro
Collins, R.A. et al. Polysaccharopeptide from Coriolus versicolor has potential for use against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Life Sci.60, 383-387 (1997). *** Abstract
Dong, Y. et al. In vitro inhibition of proliferation of HL-60 cells by tetrandrine and coriolus versicolor peptide derived from Chinese medicinal herbs. Life Sci.60, 135-140 (1997). *** Abstract

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1996

Animal
Wang, H.X. et al. Polysaccharide-peptide complexes from the cultured mycelia of the mushroom coriolus versicolor and their culture medium activate mouse lymphocytes and macrophages. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.28, 601-607 (1996). *** Abstract

In vitro

Mao, X.W. et al. Immunotherapy with low-dose interleukin-2 and a polysaccharopeptide derived from Coriolus versicolor. Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.11, 393-403 (1996). *** Abstract



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*** These studies were sponsored in part by The Hong Kong Association for Health Care Ltd. & Winsor Health Products Ltd.



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